Employment Continues To Grow – Wages Stay Behind

By Thomas Cooley and Peter Rupert

The June jobs report was stronger than many people expected given that other economic indicators for the second quarter have been soft.  The BLS data show an increase in payroll employment of 222,000 with upward revisions of 14,000 for May and 33,000 for April. The average number of jobs added in the private sector is 180,000 per month in 2017, just slightly less than the 187,00 per month added in 2016.  The service sector provided 162,000 additional jobs. The largest contributors in the service sector were Health Care and Social Assistance which added 59,000 jobs, and Professional and Business Services, up 35,000.

The volatile Mining sector continues to expand, up 8,000. Manufacturing and Construction employment are still nearly 10% below the level back in January, 2008.


The household data indicates average weekly hours remained at 34.4 and average hourly earnings ticked up by only 4 cents last month and is up 2.5% since June of last year. With inflation up 1.87% since June of last year, real average earnings are up only slightly.


The labor force jumped up 361,000, leading to a small increase in the labor force participation rate to 62.8 percent about where it has been for the past year. The labor force participation rate for teens has been ticking up slightly, now at 35.9 compared to a series low of 32.7 in February of 2014. The labor force participation rate for men, women and those over 55 all have pretty much flattened out over the past couple of years.


The number of persons unemployed was stable at 7 million. The employment to population ratio was also stable at 60.1 percent. The unemployment rate ticked up slightly, from 4.29% to 4.36%.

The Jobs Opening and Labor Turnover Survey shows that openings are at an all time high although the rate of hiring has slowed somewhat.


Where does this leave us? The Fed has mentioned at least one more rate increase for the year, yet the labor market is giving somewhat mixed signals. Employment continues to grow, sure, but wages continue to stagnate. There is much talk about the unemployment rate being at a record low but there is little reason to boast about this when labor force participation, and the employment population ratio remain at sucet.h low levels.  This together with the stagnant wages and unfilled vacancies gives some support to the notion that there is a serious degree of mis-match in the labor market.

Weak(ish) May Jobs Report

By Thomas Cooley and Peter Rupert

The May jobs report was certainly on the weaker side. The BLS data show an increase in payroll employment of 138,000 with downward revisions totaling 66,000 (down 29,000 in March and 37,000 in April). The service sector provided 131,000 additional jobs. The largest contributors in the service sector were Education and Health services, up 47,000, and Professional and Business Services, up 38,000.


The volatile Mining sector continues to expand, up 6,000 and the 7th straight month adding employees. Manufacturing and Construction employment are still nearly 10% below the level back in January, 2008.


Average weekly hours remained at 34.4. Average hourly earnings ticked up slightly.


The household survey showed a large decrease in the labor force, down 429,000, leading to a decline in the participation rate, from 62.9 to 62.7.  The number of employed persons was down 233,000 and the number of persons unemployed was down 195,000. The employment to population ratio fell from 60.2 to 60.0. The unemployment rate fell slightly from 0.044 to 0.0429.



The  next two charts indicate there is something missing in the labor market picture.  Vacancies are at record levels and the unemployment rate is at a decade low and yet average hourly earnings have barely budged.  This, combined with low and falling participation rates, suggests that there is indeed something missing.  That something is human capital.  Jobs that can be routinized and require low levels of human capital are being replaced by technology. The education system is not producing the kinds of workers that are  needed in many parts of the economy.  The loss of jobs to robotics and AI is more likely to speed up than slow down and changing our human capital is a slow process.

Although there has been a lot of chatter about the Fed downplaying the previous GDP report and feeling confident the economy about the continued strength of the economy, there are certainly some signs the economy has deep seated weakness. Maybe not enough to dissuade the Fed from a June increase, but certainly to give some pause in their commentary.

Upward Q1 Revision to Real GDP

By Thomas Cooley and Peter Rupert

Today’s release of the 2nd estimate for Q1 GDP from the BEA brought a large increase, nearly double, in real GDP, compared to the advance estimate. The revised real GDP growth is 1.2% in the first quarter while it was 0.7% in the advance estimate. The positive revision has been a feature of first quarter estimates for several years and has sparked a lot of attention to the  seasonal adjustment.   There were significant revisions to final sales and some modest downward revisions to inventories. In addition, real personal consumption expenditures only grew at 0.6% (but were revised up from 0.3%), the weakest growth in over 5 years. .

There were downward revision to Q4 income growth which pushed the savings rate lower. Most of the markets’ attention was focused on the April report on durable goods issued this morning as well. It was very soft and some of the details were disappointing.



Both residential and non-residential fixed investment showed strong growth in the quarter, gaining 13.8% and 11.4%, respectively.


At the moment, the revised estimates will not do much to change the current thinking as to the state of the economy. The revision was a bit higher than expectations by many forecasters. We are just going to have to wait a little longer to see how the economy evolves as we near mid year. The Atlanta Fed’s GDPNow has revised down its forecast for Q2, from 4.1% to 3.7% after some of the latest releases, including today’s GDP and durable goods…still, 3.7% would be a very welcome outcome!


April Employment Report

By Thomas Cooley and Peter Rupert

The release of April’s employment report from the BLS showed an increase in payroll employment of 211,000, with 194,000 of that from the private sector. An upward revision of 13k for February and a downward revision for March of 19k nearly offset each other. There were only a couple of small declines throughout the major sectors. In the goods producing sector, durable goods fell 3k and in the service producing sector, employment in information fell 7k, the third consecutive decline in that area.


Mining and logging employment (mainly oil) has increased for the sixth month in a row although still about 6% below the level in 2008.



Average weekly hours of work rose from 34.3 to 34.4 and has been bouncing between the two since March, 2016. Average hourly earnings rose 0.3% from $26.12 to $26.19.



The household data showed little change in the labor force, up 12k, while then number of persons unemployed fell by 146k, leading to a decline in the unemployment rate from 4.496 to 4.404, the lowest in about a decade.

While the Fed seemed to brush off a weak Q1 GDP report, then stating, “Job gains were solid, on average, in recent months, and the unemployment rate declined,” kept the door open for a possible rate hike at the next meeting. However, while job gains are “solid” the trend over the past several months points to a slightly weakening labor market. The question for policy makers is: Was the recent Q1 weakness transitory or, in combination with the downward trend in employment, has the economy weakened?



Weak Q1 GDP Growth

By Thomas Cooley, Ben Griffy and Peter Rupert

The advance estimate from the Bureau of Economic Analysis shows the weakest GDP growth in three years…although 2015 Q4 (0.9%) and 2016 Q1 (0.8%) were nothing to write home about.


Consumption (lack of) played a large role in the decline, only up 0.3%, along with a $39.2 billion decline in inventories. This is clearly at odds with the surge in consumer and business sentiment following the election of Donald Trump. That optimism about the economy has yet to translate into real improvement. The deeper issue is whether the first quarter weakness will spill over into the second.  Most observers think not although we are probably not on track for growth greater than 2%.


On the positive side, investment expenditures came in strong, both non-residential and residential. Overall, fixed investment was up 10.4% with non-residential structures up 22.1%, equipment up 9.1% and intellectual property products up 2.0%. Residential investment was also quite strong, growing 13.7% in the first quarter.


Government consumption expenditures and gross investment was down 1.7%, the main contributor to the decline was national defense spending, down 4.0%. State and local government was also down 1.6%.



While the weak GDP report along with the earlier weak jobs report may lessen the resolve for the Fed to move aggressively on rate hikes, the recent surge in employment costs may be signaling a tight labor market.