September Employment Report Card: Modest

By Thomas Cooley, Ben Griffy and Peter Rupert

The BLS announced this morning that the establishment survey data revealed only a modest increase in employment of 156,000 for September. In addition, the July number was revised down from 275,000 to 252,000 but August was revised up from 151,000 to 167,000, so overall pretty much a wash as to the overall state of employment.


The labor market has averaged around 200,000 per month over the previous year. It appears clear from this report that it provides little help in assessing the next FOMC move.

Private sector employment was up 167,000 and government employment fell 11,000. This was consistent with the GDP report for Q2, which reported that state and local government spending had fallen. The mining and logging sector (oil sector is included) showed no decline in employment, the first non-negative number in two years.


Employment in the manufacturing sector shrank for the second consecutive month, down 16,000 in August and 13,000 this month. The services sector gained 157,000 jobs.

Average weekly hours rose slightly from 34.3 to 34.4.

The household survey showed a somewhat more robust looking labor market. The number of employed according that survey increased 354,000, with the labor force increasing 444,000. The overall impact drove the labor force participation rate up from 62.8 to 62.9.


The increase in the labor force moved the unemployment rate up slightly from 4.92% to 4.96%, so does not look quite as drastic as going from 4.9% to 5.0% as reported.


Looking at the composition of the unemployed since 2007 shows that job losers as a fraction of the unemployed are even lower than they were in 2007 and reentrants are a higher fraction of the unemployed.  Job losers at the nadir of the recession accounted for about 65% of the unemployed but only about 50% today. On the other hand new entrants accounted for about 6.5% of the unemployed at the nadir and now account for over 10%. The graph below shows how each of those changed since 2007.


The number of persons unemployed 27 weeks and longer fell slightly but is moving quite sluggishly and as a fraction of the unemployed remains at about a quarter, still higher than any time since 1948.


Once again the employment report does not help much in assessing what the FOMC will do at the next meeting. While the report showed continuing strength in the labor market and according to some beat expectations…still nothing to write home about.

GDP Report Shows Modest Gains

By Thomas Cooley, Ben Griffy, and Peter Rupert

There has been a rash of recent data showing the U.S. economy growing stronger. Rising incomes,  stronger domestic demand, and rising net exports are signaling a more robust economy. The upward revisions to second quarter GDP support that view and the hope and reasonable expectation is that the third quarter will be stronger still setting the table for a Fed rate hike later this year. The third estimate for second quarter GDP growth, released this morning by the BLS (link) estimates that the US economy grew at an annualized rate of 1.4% in the second quarter, up from a previous estimate of 1.1%, and up from the first quarter, in which the rate was 0.8%.


These gains were largely accrued from increases in personal consumption expenditures, which increased at an annualized rate of 4.3%, exports, which grew at a rate of 1.8%, and fixed nonresidential investment, which grew at a rate of 1.0%. Offsetting these gains were declines in residential investment, of 7.7%, government spending (national fell 0.4%, while state and local fell 2.5%), and imports, which rose 0.2%. It should be noted that the levels of the categories that grew dwarf the levels of those that declined, leading to the overall increase in headline numbers.



As noted, personal consumption expenditures (PCE) played the largest role in GDP growth last quarter. This bucked a trend over the previous four quarters in which percent growth in the component had fallen, while still remaining positive. Growth in the component more than doubled over the Q1 figure, and was nearly at its highest rate of growth since the Great Recession. This is a strong indication that US consumers are confident in the direction of the US economy. For comparison, many European economies have not seen consumption growth of 4.3% in total since the beginning of the Great Recession:Real Consumption-13.png

Which shows the importance that the US economy has as a global driver of growth. In total, changes in PCE would have caused a 2.88% increase in GDP, all else equal.



Residential and non-residential investment swapped growth trends, with non-residential investment ticking positive for the first time in three quarters, and residential investment turning negative for the first time since 2013Q4. Nonresidential investment was driven up by increases in expenditures on industrial equipment, and intellectual property products, with the latter increasing by 9.0% at an annualized rate. Overall, Gross Private Domestic Investment caused a decline in GDP of 1.34%, if all other components were held constant.

The report should be taken with cautious optimism that the US has absorbed some of the global economic uncertainty in stride. Even more cause for optimism is that GDP growth would have been 1.7% annualized if the contribution of government spending had been removed, a highly variable series that has limited forecasting ability on the health of the economy, particularly in an election year. These figures are perhaps inauspicious in comparison to the halcyon heights of US economic history, but in the context of our times, they continue to reflect the strength of the US economy in period of great uncertainty.

August Employment not august

By Thomas Cooley, Ben Griffy and Peter Rupert

Employment from the establishment survey reported by the BLS increased 151,000, nearly all of which was in the private service sectors, increasing 150,000. The goods producing sector decreased 24,000, roughly offset by government employment, up 25,000.
Manufacturing employment has shown considerable weakness since 2015, while the service sector has continued to show strength. Education and health services along with leisure and hospitality posted the largest gains of the subsectors. Revisions were pretty much a wash: down 21,000 for June and up 20,000 for July.




Average weekly hours fell to 34.3 after six straight months at 34.4. Labor force participation and the employment population ration were essentially unchanged.


The household survey wasn’t encouraging either. Employment, according to the household survey, increased only 97,000 and the unemployment rate ticked up slightly from 4.88% to 4.92%. The number of unemployed persons increased as did those not in the labor force. The number of people working part-time for economic reasons increased for the second straight month, but the number of people marginally attached to the labor force trickled down.

The problem the markets now face is that this report only increases uncertainty. The FOMC has been suggesting of late they seem to be favoring a rate increase sooner rather than later. Over the past three months employment increases have average 232,000 jobs a month but the most recent numbers are softer. If this had been a stronger report a rate increase would have certainly been likely this year. It may still be but it is likely that the Fed will wait for more indications. The CPI for July was unchanged and for the previous year up only 0.8.  If the economy keeps going sideways the Fed has a quandary: clearly they would like to get on more normal path, but the sluggish economy and global uncertainty have forced tepid policy responses until the storm quiets.

Q2 GDP Revised Down…Just a Bit

By Thomas Cooley, Ben Griffy and Peter Rupert

Today’s revised estimate of Q2 GDP from the BEA saw only a small downward revision that did little to change the economic outlook. The advance estimated growth of 1.2% was revised down to 1.1%. Personal consumption expenditures continues to be the main driver it appears, contributing 2.94%, while there was also a smaller decrease in private fixed investment. Although, investment overall has continued to look weak.




The general weakness, PCE aside, will almost certainly keep the Fed sitting on their hand this September.

Yellen’s Jackson Hole Remarks:

Federal Reserve Chairwoman Janet Yellen spoke at the annual meeting in Jackson Hole this morning (link to transcript). Entitled “The Federal Reserve’s Monetary Policy Toolkit: Past, Present, and Future,” she focused on whether the current monetary tools are adequate for future downturns. Most specifically, she points to the ability of the Federal Reserve to affect the quantity of reserves held by banks. After the government pumped extra liquidity into the market following the Great Recession, the previous policy tool (changing the volume of reserves offered by the Fed in the overnight market) would have been dwarfed by the reserves available from banks. To prevent this from happening, the Congress implemented a policy in October 2008 to allow interest to be paid on reserved held by banks. The results have been nothing short of astonishing:reserves-2016-08-27.png

Yellen made the case for a gradually rising Federal Funds rate conditional on economic conditions continuing to strengthen.  This strengthened the prospect that we will see further rises this calendar year.  All told, the prospect seems to be for gradual improvement of the economy as reflected in the steady improvement in employment and wages, but no major moves in the Fed’s policy stance or targets.

July Employment: Strength in Numbers

By Thomas Cooley, Ben Griffy and Peter Rupert

The Bureau of Labor Statistics announced that non-farm payroll employment for July increased 255,000, beating the “expected” job gains of 180,000. In addition, both May and June were revised up, 13,000 and 5,000, respectively. The bulk of the gains came from service sector jobs, up 201,000 with the majority of those in business and professional services.Employment in manufacturing (+9,000) and construction (+14,000) rose while  mining continued its decline (-7,000), consistent with continued weakness in the energy sector and oil prices.




The continued strength in the labor market also showed up in an increase in average weekly hours and average hourly earnings.  Earnings are now increasing at a rate of over 2.5% year over year.


Labor market dynamics from the household survey revealed an encouraging increase in labor force participation and employment and a decline in the number of persons unemployed, resulting in essentially no change in the unemployment rate at 4.89%. This means that fewer people are sitting on the sidelines. While the news is, on the whole, positive, the number of persons unemployed more than 27 weeks increased for the third straight month.



The big puzzle is how to reconcile the continued strength in the labor market  with the very weak GDP growth reported last week and how the parse the impact of this on the decision making of the Fed.  Most likely the reason for these diverging signals will be become clearer over the next few months. The widespread view is that the continued strength of the labor market makes it likely that there will be a rate increase in 2016, although the weak GDP numbers will keep the market guessing.